The most common cancers that spread to the bone are breast, prostate, lung, thyroid, kidney and melanoma.
What is secondary bone cancer?
Cancer that begins in other parts of the body can sometimes spread to the bone. This is called secondary, advanced or metastatic bone cancer.
Cancer that begins in the bone is called primary bone cancer.
Cancer is a disease of the body's cells. It starts in our genes. Our bodies are constantly making new cells, a process controlled by certain genes. Cancers are caused by damage to these genes. As the damaged cells replicate a lump or tumour is formed.
Tumours can be:
- Benign - not cancerous. These do not spread to other parts of the body.
- Malignant - cancerous
Cancer cells can move through the body using the bloodstream or the lymphatic system and grow in new places.
When cells from a primary cancer spread to other parts of your body, the cancer cells usually still look the same.
For example, if cancer began in the breast and then spread to the bone, the cancer cells in the bones will still look like breast cancer cells.
Sometimes secondary cancer in the bone is found before the primary cancer has been diagnosed. When doctors cannot find where the cancer started growing, it is called cancer of unknown primary.
Secondary bone cancer symptoms
Signs and symptoms of secondary bone cancer may include:
- bone pain
- weakened bones that break or fracture easily
- raised calcium levels in the blood (hypercalcaemia)
- pressure on the nerves in the spinal cord
- muscle pain and weakness
- tingling or numbness of the limbs
Having these symptoms does not mean you have secondary bone cancer, but it is important to get any changes checked by your doctor.
How is secondary bone cancer diagnosed?
If you have any secondary bone cancer symptoms, get checked by your doctor as soon as possible.
Your doctor may suggest several tests to check for any changes.
These tests may include:
Your doctor will feel around the affected bones or joints.
A radioactive dye is injected into your arm and a scan will show if that dye has been attracted to abnormal cells in your bones.
An x-ray will show cancers 1cm or larger.
An MRI uses magnets and radio waves to make a detailed picture of the inside of your body.
A CT scan creates a 3D picture of the inside of your body. It can show smaller cancers than an x-ray and enlarged lymph nodes.
A PET-CT scan uses a radioactive dye injected into your arm that will show up in areas affected by cancer. You may have to travel for this scan.
A biopsy takes a small sample of the abnormal cells to check if they're cancerous.
Treatment of secondary bone cancer
Secondary bone cancer treatment may include radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or immunotherapy.
The kind of treatment you have will depend on:
- the type of primary cancer, if known
- the treatment you have already had, if any
- how far the cancer has spread
- your general health
The aim of the treatment is to help control the cancer and the symptoms.
Before any treatment begins, make sure that you have discussed and understood your treatment team's advice. You may ask for a second opinion if you want one.
Palliative care aims to improve your quality of life. It is not just about end of life care.
Palliative care will help:
- you to enjoy the best quality of life you can for as long as possible
- make sure that your physical, practical, emotional and spiritual needs are looked after as well as possible
- manage symptoms of your cancer
- manage side effects of treatment
- help you to feel in control of your situation
- make your time as positive as it can be for you and your family/whānau
Speak with your treatment team about palliative care options for you and your family/whānau.
Using complementary or traditional healing
Sometimes people with cancer might think about using complementary therapies or traditional healing.
Some alternative, complementary and traditional healing methods may react with the treatment you receive and cause harmful side-effects.
It is important to talk to your treatment team about any other therapies you’re using or thinking about because they may interfere with hospital treatment.
Learning more about the treatments you've been offered can help you prepare.
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